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Re: benzodiazepine

Posted by Phillipa on September 16, 2007, at 19:26:44

In reply to benzodiazepine (nm) » Phillipa, posted by saturn on September 16, 2007, at 13:42:44

Gotta read more on this as I think just found out how I lost my taste and smell three years ago while taking it. Phillipa

Chloral hydrate
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Chloral hydrate
Systematic (IUPAC) name
CAS number 302-17-0
ATC code N05CC01
PubChem 2707
DrugBank ?
Chemical data
Formula C2H3Cl3O2
Mol. mass 165.5 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability well absorbed
Metabolism converted to trichloroethanol, hepatic and renal
Half life 8–10 hours in plasma
Excretion bile, feces, urine (various metabolites not unchanged)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. C(US)

Legal status Schedule IV(US)

Routes Oral capsule/syrup, rectal suppository
Chloral hydrate, also known as trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate, 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-ethanediol, and under the tradenames Aquachloral, Novo-Chlorhydrate, Somnos, Noctec, and Somnote, is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. Its chemical formula is C2H3Cl3O2.

It was discovered through the chlorination of ethanol in 1832 by Justus von Liebig in Gießen. It was widely abused and misprescribed in the late 19th century. Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and alcohol, readily forming concentrated solutions. A solution of chloral hydrate in alcohol called "knockout drops" was used to prepare a Mickey Finn.

It is a minor side-product of the chlorination of water, concentrations rarely exceeding 5 micrograms per litre (µg/l).

Contents [hide]
1 Uses
2 See also
3 Chloral in fiction
4 See Also
5 Sources
6 External links

[edit] Uses
It is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia and as a sedative before minor medical or dental treatment. It has been largely displaced by the development of benzodiazepines. It was also formerly used as in veterinary medicine as a general anesthetic. Today, it is commonly used as an ingredient in the veterinary anesthetic Equithesin.

In therapeutic doses for insomnia it is effective within sixty minutes, it is metabolized within 4 minutes into trichloroethanol by erythrocytes and plasma esterases and many hours later into trichloroacetic acid. Higher doses can depress respiration and blood pressure. An overdose is marked by confusion, convulsions, nausea and vomiting, severe drowsiness, slow and irregular breathing, cardiac arrhythmia and weakness. It may also cause liver damage. It is moderately addictive. Chronic use can cause dependency and withdrawal symptoms. It can potentiate various anticoagulants and is weakly mutagenic in vitro and in vivo.

The corresponding anhydrous aldehyde, chloral, is used as an intermediate in insecticide and herbicide manufacture (including DDT, dichlorvos, and naled). Chloral reacts rapidly with water to form chloral hydrate.

Chloral hydrate is now illegal in the United States without a prescription. Chloral hydrate is a schedule IV controlled substance in the United States. Its properties sometimes lead to its use as a date rape




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